# Sample Chapters: AP Online Chemistry Video eBook

Our online video ebook and companion text has been broken out into preview chapters for instructors to learn about the material covered in each chapter. These previews can help you determine the order in which the chapters are organized and also provide some context.

### Chapter 1: Atoms Molecules & Ions

This introductory chapter will cover atoms, molecules, elements, and ionic compounds. In Chapter 1 high school students will review and/or continue to memorize names, rules and formulas they will need to master as they move through the chemistry course. This should be a refresher of general chemistry in high school, before moving into the advanced placement curriculum. After a thorough review of the chapter, students are given the opportunity to review questions at the end of the chapter to make sure the students understand the material covered before moving on to the advanced placement curriculum.

### Chapter 2: Mass Relations in Formulas, Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry

In this video, you will learn how to most effectively navigate and utilize the resources available in Chapter 2. It is strongly recommended that learners follow the order in which the topics are represented, to ensure the best possible understanding and avoid confusion. Concepts are available for review in video, text, and audio format. Before proceeding to the quiz, it is recommended that students study the practice multiple-choice questions with solutions. For the best possible learning outcome, students should practice these mathematical equations on paper and pencil.

### Chapter 3: Solution Chemistry

While some instructors may not require you to memorize the solubility rules, we suggest that you go through them thoroughly so that you may learn how to effectively write ionic equations for soluble ionic compounds. This will aid you in understanding ionic equations and precipitate reactions, calculating the molarity of ions, insoluble ionic compounds, titrations, and gravimetric analysis. It is recommended that you thoroughly study sections 1, 2, and 3 before continuing to section 3.9. You will be introduced to the basic definitions of electrolytes, non-electrolytes, acids, and bases. Remember, simply viewing the videos is not sufficient in gaining understanding of the topics in this chapter. Please practice the following homework sets.

### Chapter 4: Oxidation and Reduction

This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of oxidation, reduction, the oxidizing agent, and the reducing agent. Rules of calculating oxidation and examples are explained in the following section. Learning these rules and how to apply them is very important. You will also learn two different methods of balancing redox reactions. Choose one method to follow, as actively using both can lead to confusion. In the final section, you will be introduced to redox titration.

### Chapter 5: Gases

In Chapter 5, you will be performing multiple calculations. Having a basic understanding of algebra will be helpful. You will also be introduced to graphical interpretations of the presented topics, which you will want to pay close attention to. It is important that students are mindful of units, metrics, and conversions. There are many topics in this chapter that may be tricky, so it is important that you take the time to practice and learn them thoroughly before advancing. Practice as many examples as you can and complete the following homework assignment.

### Chapter 6: Thermochemistry

Everyone can recite the first law of thermodynamics, however, it is important to understand and apply the law from the thermodynamic point of view. Be sure to review each section carefully and remember: it is suggested that students go through the chapters as they are presented slowly and thoroughly. Do not skip portions to avoid confusion and frustration, especially on more challenging topics.

### Chapter 7: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table of Elements

In this chapter, students will be introduced to the electromagnetic spectrum, which involves memorization of different radiations and corresponding wavelengths and frequencies. You will learn calculations of wavelengths, frequency, and energy. Students will also learn planck’s equation, the bohr model, Heisenberg’s principle, and the Schrodinger equation. Following is the introduction of many more principles, equations, and rules. Lastly, students will be introduced to the periodic table and abbreviated electron configurations and complete the homework to enhance their understanding.

### Chapter 8: Chemical Bonding

The chemical bonding chapter covers Lewis structures, Lewis dot symbols, chemical bonds, ionic bonds, and covalent bonds. It is recommended that you practice writing Lewis structures on pencil and paper multiple times, as it is a very important (and sometimes difficult) concept. Students will also learn the differences between shared, bonding, and non-bonding electrons, and memorize the formula to calculate a formal charge. This is why learning Lewis structures is important, since you cannot calculate a correct formal charge without a correct Lewis structure. Remember to follow the given layout to gain the best possible understanding of the topics.

### Chapter 9: Molecular Geometry and Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

It is important to understand Lewis structures and learn chapters 7 & 8 before completing this chapter. There are two methods to predict the hybridization and geometry of molecules and ions presented in this chapter. Be sure to only choose one to avoid confusion. Students will also learn covalent and ionic characteristics and molecular orbital (MO) theory. As always, it is suggested that students complete the practice problems before moving onto the homework.

### Chapter 10: Intermolecular Forces and Liquid Properties

Students will need to make sure they are familiar with the concept of polarity and understand Lewis structures before completing chapter 10. This chapter introduces the behavior of liquids, and how molecular motion differs from gases to liquids. It will also discuss London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonds. You will also learn terms associated with the properties of liquids, such as viscosity, surface tension, vapor pressure, boiling point, critical temperature, and critical pressure.

### Chapter 11: Solids

Most of this chapter focuses on crystalline solids. You will learn definitions like crystal lattice, unit cell, etc. Basic structures of simple cubic unit cells, face-centered cubic unit cells, and body-centered cubic unit cells are also introduced. Also discussed are atomic solids, metallic solids, molecular solids, ionic solids and more solids-based concepts.

### Chapter 12: Solution Properties

Before viewing this chapter, it is advised that students review chapters 2, 3, 5, & 10. Although the topics of mole and mole fraction have already been taught in previous chapters, it is recommended that you go through them again in this chapter to reinforce your understanding. You will also learn concepts of mass percent, volume percent, and parts per million (ppm). You will also be introduced to the concepts of molality, solubility, and solute solvent interactions. Students are also introduced to colligative properties such as vapor pressure lowering, osmotic pressure, boiling point elevation, and freezing point depression.

### Chapter 13: Chemical Kinetics

In this chapter, students will learn the rate of chemical reactions. Chemical kinetics introduces the relationship between reaction rate and time. You will learn the rate equation, rate constant (k), rate expressions, and order of the reaction. Also introduced is catalysis, molecularity, and mechanisms. Finally, you will learn the relationship between the rates of reaction and chemical equilibrium. In this chapter, a new concept called ‘workout examples on all important topics’ is offered. This function will serve as your own personal tutor guiding you through the chapter topics.

### Chapter 14: Chemical Equilibrium

The chapter begins with an introduction of the concepts of equilibrium and equilibrium constant. Students will be introduced to multiple equations in this chapter. You will be given multiple examples of the concepts throughout the lesson, however it is still important to complete practice examples and homework on your own with pen and paper.

### Chapter 15: Acids and Bases

Both conceptual and mathematical concepts will be taught in this lesson, as you cannot learn one without the other. Like always, it is suggested that you go through every topic as presented. It begins with identifying conjugate acid and conjugate base pair in an acid-base reaction. Following the discussion of acids and bases, pH and significant figures are introduced. Workout examples will be offered in this chapter as well, to help you strengthen your understanding of the topics.

### Chapter 16: Acid/Base Equilibrium

The chapter begins with the common ion effect on the pH of an acidic or basic solution. After this, students will learn equilibrium calculations for acids and bases with the common ion effect. Workout examples are also offered in this chapter. This is where you can follow along with the lesson and solve the problems on pencil and paper to better your understanding. Workout examples are also offered in sections covering buffer solutions. The topics in this chapter may be challenging after your first glance. It is suggested that you read through it more than once.

### Chapter 17: Solubility Equilibrium

Chapter 17 requires a good understanding of the previous chapters. Please go back and review them if needed. It begins with an explanation of solubility equilibria, and an introduction to the Ksp table. You will be provided with explanations of example Ksp calculations. Predicting the formation of a precipitate is also covered, and may be a challenging section. Review the material as many times as needed and go through the workout examples on pencil and paper as they are offered in the sections.

### Chapter 18: Spontaneity and Chemical Change

As covered earlier in chapter 6, chapter 18 begins with a review of thermodynamics. In this chapter, limitations of the first law of thermodynamics are discussed, followed by explanations of spontaneity and the second law of thermodynamics. Students will also learn entropy and the Boltzmann Formula. Lastly, Gibbs Free Energy, Standard Free Energy, and Reaction Free Energy are introduced. There are workout examples included throughout the chapter, which you are expected to follow along with on pencil and paper simultaneously with the lesson.

### Chapter 19: Electrochemistry

Before viewing this chapter, it is suggested that students review chapter 4 on oxidation and reduction. You will begin by learning the basic definition of electrochemistry, galvanic cells, and voltaic cells. After these topics, students will be introduced to cell potentials and calculating them. Going through the workout examples simultaneously with the lessons will help you gain the best understanding possible of the concepts. Lastly, complete the practice questions and homework.